GIS Resource Center for Cancer Research

Head-Bang for ArcMap

Head-Bang 2.1.1 for ArcMap integrates the Head-Bang smoothing algorithm software into the Esri ArcMap™ mapping software. It takes data from a shapefile or table within ArcMap and processes a selected field to remove data spikes.

Head-banging is a geographic process and uses region centroids to calculate neighbor regions. Head-Bang for ArcMap will compute the centroids automatically, or you can specify columns that hold x y data of the points.

Citations for the methods and applications of the head-bang algorithm are as follows.


  • Katherine M. Hansen. Head-banging: robust smoothing in the plane. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing 1991;29(3): 369-78.
  • Michael Mungiole, Linda Williams Pickle, Katherine Hansen Simonson. Application of a weighted head-banging algorithm to mortality data maps. Stat Med 1999;18:3201-9.
  • Michael Mungiole, Linda Williams Pickle. Determining the optimal degree of smoothing using the weighted head-banging algorithm on mapped mortality data. In ASC '99 - Leading Survey & Statistical Computing into the New Millennium, Proceedings of the ASC International Conference, September 1999.


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